The chart will then have the twelfth-part positions apparent around the outside. Manilius asserted that the twelfth-parts are further divided into 5 segments of half a degree each, assigned to the five non-luminary planets, Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Venus, and Mercury see Manilius, Astronomica, Book 2, It is also worth noting that Paulus Alexandrinus 4th Century CE provided an idiosyncratic type of twelfth-parts. The twelfth-part explanation in Paulus is most likely in error, as he multiplies the position by 13, rather than by Paulus seemed to imply that multiplication by 13 was necessary to allow the 12th parts to come back to the sign that the planet is in.
This is hardly a noteworthy argument, as the first 2. In the commentary on Paulus by Olympiodorus the Younger 6th Century CE , he found it necessary to explain the more typical form of twelfth-part first to preface the discussion. He then explained the idiosyncratic Paulean form. As far as I know, this idiosyncratic form of twelfth-part isban innovation of Paulus and was used by Paulus only, so I will not pursue it further here. And we say: the ancient Egyptians used to call it the 12th part, since the number is found in the position of each star multiplied by However Paulus, having come later and examined the matter closely, [said] that the multiplication by 12 is never returned to the same zoidion where the star is, where we seek the dodekatemorion — but often the dodekatemorion of the star happens to fall in the same zoidion where the star is.
Olympiodorus, Commentary on Paulus Alexandrinus, Ch. The twelfth-parts produce a secondary zodiacal position for each planet and point in the chart. It is as if each point is projected into an additional hidden zodiacal position. There are four main ways in which the twelfth-parts were used in Hellenistic astrology: 1. The twelfth-part of the Moon gave indications regarding the physical sex of the person; 2. The twelfth-part of the Sun gave indications about the Ascendant when it was unknown; 3. Twelfth-part positions gave additional information about planetary significations that are on par with the natal positions of the planet.
I will briefly explore three of these four uses; for sex, finding the Ascendant, and interpretation of cognition. However, I want to make it clear to the reader, that the last use is by far the most fruitful and important. Both Dorotheus Book I, Ch. However, there are some exceptions that can override this indication of the sex of the sign of the twelfth-part of the Moon. The exception are as follows: 1. Sun, Moon, and Ascendant are in signs of the opposite sex, 2. Sun is masculine and Moon is feminine is in the Ascendant in a sign of its same sex, 3.
This method is poor for predicting sex.
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For instance, Kurt Cobain has Sun, Moon, and Ascendant all in feminine signs, which would override the fact that the twelfth-part of the Moon in his chart is in Sagittarius, a masculine sign. Additionally, the ruler of the twelfth-part of the Moon is Jupiter, which is also in a feminine sign. One might argue that perhaps Dorotheus was incorrect and the twelfth-part of the Moon should be given the primary consideration in this endeavor.
However, examine the chart of Traci Lords. Her Ascendant is in a masculine sign, Sun and Moon in feminine signs. In conclusion, we cannot rely upon the twelfth-part of the Moon methods of Dorotheus or Valens to guess the sex of a person by the birth chart. Perhaps Dorotheus and Valens have given us leads for the eventual development of a technique for guessing the sex of an individual from the chart that involves use of twelfth-parts. It is only one method among many rectification methods discussed by Valens. If it is a night birth, then it will be one of the signs opposite to these, again with the same preference.
For example, if someone was born with the twelfth-part of the Sun in Taurus, then for a day birth the most likely Ascendant would be Virgo, but could also be Scorpio or Capricorn. If a night birth then the most likely Ascendant would be Pisces, but could also be Taurus or Cancer. One of the more fascinating niche uses of twelfth-parts is in the interpretation of cognition.
This use was common for consultation charts, and later in medieval horary astrology. The technique originates with unknown Indian astrologers and Hephastio of Thebes. The basic idea is that the twelfth-part of the Ascendant gives indications about the thoughts and intentions of a native or a querent the one asking the astrologer to divine the answer to a question.
The native is really concerned about matters pertaining to the house represented by the twelfth-part of the Ascendant. I highly recommend this work of Dr.
Dykes for those interested in delving into this use of twelfth-parts in greater depth. Dykes explores the technique in his introduction, translates a work which uses the technique, and provides commentary on that work. Additionally, he includes appendices with further discussion and translations, including a table of the entire significations given by Hephastio for each twelfth-part of the Ascendant. This use of consultation charts preceded, and likely lead to, the development of horary astrology.
If the place is empty then you look to the place of its ruler. As the Ascendant was in Aries, Leo was the 5th place from the Ascendant. Leo was empty in the horary chart and the Sun was in Libra, the 7th. Used with natal charts the technique puts an interesting twist on the idea of personal focus and fulfillment. The ruler of the Ascendant shows a particular pull towards a certain place in the natal chart.
Consider its accompanying themes and significations. Similarly, the twelfth-part of the Ascendant and its ruler may reveal a personal emphasis for the individual. I highly recommend the use of the twelfth-parts of all chart factors. Hitler had the twelfth-part of the Ascendant in Leo with the greater malefic Saturn, in the bound of Mercury. It is in the networking and popularity-oriented 11th House house of friends , in the sign of leadership, Leo.
Its ruler, the Sun, was in the 8th, pertaining to death and harm. This gives interesting additional valuable information that we can add to our knowledge that his Ascendant lord Venus and the sect light of his chart the Sun are in the 8th of his natal chart. I also think that Leo and the solar element both contribute meaning here, as does the bound of Mercury.
It is also in the bound of Saturn. It is conjunct Venus, the lord of the Ascendant, which is also the ruler of the twelfth-part. They are both in the same bound of Saturn in the 8th. Therefore, the personal intentions and focus on Saturnine-Venusian, death, fear, and destruction themes are very pronounced. Start playing around with twelfth-parts in natal, horary, mundane, and electional charts.
For electional astrology, putting the twelfth-part of the Moon in strong and good places is recommended by Sahl and others. Experiment, and if you have any revelations, feel free to share them in the comments. Blogger interested in all things astrological, especially Hellenistic, medieval, Uranian, and asteroid astrology. Pingback: Why Use the Tropical Zodiac?
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Signs and Stakes Seven Stars Astrology. Pingback: Horary — Why do I keep hiring the wrong astrologers? There is also the so-called Corpus Hermeticum , which consists of a number of philosophical dialogues containing a small amount of astrological material. The relationship of the author s of these writings to the author of the astrological writings is unclear. As well as being the personage to whom some Hermetics writings are addresed, he is associated with the eight-topic house system and a work called the Myriogenesis , which evidently contained delineations based on the degree and minute of the rising signs.
Egyptian pharaoh and high priest, respectively. An extensive astrological textbook bearing their names was evidently written or translated into Greek around in the 2nd century B. Numerous references and direct quotations from it survive in the later astrological literature. It seems to have been a principal source for all later Greek astrology. The character of this writing may be gathered from the 20 page excerpt on eclipse delineation found at the end of Book I of Hephaistio's Apotelesmatics.
Judging from some remarks in Valens concerning the calculation of the Lot of Fortune, much of the text may also have been cryptic, raising the possibility that some of the variations in the later astrological writers may have been due to different interpretations of this root text.
Evidently, the source text required a fair amount of elucidation due to its occasionally enigmatical and elliptical style of composition. Cited by Valens for the topic of travel, and the time-lord procedure of zodiacal releasing from the Lots of Fortune and Spirit. Attributed to him with some suspicion are a work on the twelve year cycle of Jupiter, a work on planetary ingresses, and possibly one on earthquakes.
Critodemus of uncertain date, but probably right around the beginning of the C. Critodemus is last in the line of the Hermetic lineage given by Firmicus Maternus. He wrote a book called the Vision now lost, but partially preserved in a later summary , and possibly one called Table.
In the former work, he evidently discussed, among other things, the time-lord procedure of decennials, giving delineations. He is cited quite frequently by Valens, who respects his astrological work but evidently found the style of his book quite theatrical and distasteful. There are also a number of shorter excerpts on various subjects attributed to him, such as various "figures" indicating violent death. Serapio of Alexandria of uncertain date, but probably B.
Not explicitly mentioned by Firmicus, but perhaps belonging to this period. The few surviving fragments of Serapio mostly deal with inceptional or katarchic astrology that is, electional issues ; there is one important fragment that sets out a general strategy for doing such katarchic investigations, and Serapio may have been one of the earliest systematizers of this theory.
Another astrologer possibly belonging to this period, who is quoted by Valens in connection with the topic of parents.
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Although Valens considers his style to be beautiful and full of marvelous tales along with another author named Asklation , he does not think that Timaeus delivers on his promise. There is also a surviving excerpt from a Timaeus dealing with the subject of fugitive slaves. Also among the "others" mentioned by Firmicus Maternus may be one Orion , mentioned by Valens in connection with a dynamical division of the zodiac, and Hermeias, who had a procedure for determining the sign of the year by profections, directly quoted by Valens. There is a short summary of a work by an astrologer named Callicrates on the planets, which, judging from some archaic terminology, may be from this period.
Also, a work called Astrological Practices by Demetrius may date from this period; it dealt with some katarchic subjects, of which an excerpt dealing with runaways and one about leaving on sea voyages survive in later texts. It is only natural that these compilations would reflect the biases or interests of the individual authors. Thus, the original font of astrological material began to be reorganized, rearranged and systematized.
The most important compiler from this period is Dorotheus of Sidon 1st century C. Dorotheus of Sidon presumed 1st Century C. Wrote a long and important astrological poem, now called the Pentateuch because it exists in five books. Numerous fragments survive in Greek, but some version of it was translated into Persian, then into Arabic, and has been translated from Arabic into English by Pingree.
There are evidently quite a number of sections of the original missing from the Arabic version, which also contains numerous Arabian interpolations. This work of Dorotheus was probably the single most important influence on Arabian natal astrology. Dorotheus advocated the study of trigon lords for virtually every topic. Manilius c. Wrote the Astronomica in Latin, a long didactic astrological poem most of which is still extant. It contains a wealth of astrological material about the signs, houses, derivative houses from the Lot of Fortune, and other matters, presumably deriving from the Hellenistic Greek tradition, but much of it seems very idiosyncratic.
It is not clear that Manilius understood very well the astrological tradition he was versifying. He often makes claims of originality for what he presents. Thrasyllus d.
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A scholar from Rhodes who became the astrological advisor to Tiberius and apparently had considerable influence over that emperor. He wrote a work called Table , evidently referring to the writing boards upon which charts were cast. This work does not survive intact, although some of his ideas are cited by Valens, Porphyry, and Hephaistio; the work was summarized by a later Byzantine epitomist, so we have some idea of its contents.
It seems to have covered many of the fundamentals on the natures of the signs, planets, and houses preserving a number of peculiar house assignments attributed to Hermes ; he advocated there a zodiac with the vernal point at 8 degrees of Aries. The astrologer Balbillus, who was astrologer to the emperor Claudius, may have been the son of Thrasyllus. Teucer of Babylon presumed 1st Century C. Tradition has it that he was the first to delineate the decans astrologically, and fragments of such a treatise do survive.
He may have been the primary source for the delineations of the planets and signs found in Valens, Rhetorius, and others. Rhetorious also ascribes a work on the Ascendant and the lots to him, although this evidently does not survive. Balbillus late first century C. Probably the son of Thrasyllus, he served as astrological advisor to the emperor Claudius, as well as other emperors. He wrote a work called Astrological Matters , which survives only in a much later summary. This summary contains his treatment of length of life determination, and also a variation on the time-lord method of decennials, where the minor periods of the planets are reduced in proportion to their distances from their own exaltation degrees.
A turning point in the tradition occurred in the first two centuries of the Christian era with the work of Ptolemy 2nd century and Valens 2nd century. Although both were in touch with the earlier tradition and respected it, each in his own way rethought astrology and left his own personal mark on it. Ptolemy stands out for his far-reaching attempt to reconceptualize the fundamental principles of Hellenistic astrology in terms of Stoic and Aristotelean natural philosophy and for his orderly presentation and systematization the astrological doctrines that fit within his theoretical framework.
Valens, on the other hand, is notable for his systematic empirical testing and examination of the methods of his predecessors. Both men favored astrological procedures that they regarded as "natural" rather than "mystical" or connected with the mysteries , meaning those for which a plausible astronomical or "scientific" explanation could be adduced. Both were also somewhat critical of the "combinatory" style in which the earlier treatises were composed, where an individual technique was delineated through all possible combinations of planets and supporting conditions.
Both preferred a more "synoptic" approach whereby the basic natures and basic forms were presented in isolation, and the astrologer could combine them himself in an intuitive act. Claudius Ptolemy 2nd Century C. Ptolemy was an Egyptian by birth and probably a Roman citizen, although he wrote in Greek.
Famous in antiquity for his Almagest, Optics, Harmonics, Geography , and other writings, he clearly took astrology very seriously. His astrological treatise was called the Tetrabiblos , because it consists of four books. It was Ptolemy who first reconceptualized astrology in terms of natural philosophy, and the Tetrabiblos could perhaps be regarded as the completion of Aristotelian physics at the sublunary level.
However, his enormous influence may ultimately have been to the detriment of astrology, since he was first and foremost a theoretical revisionist. His astrological teaching is by no means fully representative of the main line of Hellenistic astrology. In fact, he rejected large portions of the tradition he inherited. Though the Tetrabiblos is a marvel of clear organization and shows deep philosophical sophistication and subtlety, it is not clear whether Ptolemy himself was a practicing astrologer.
He was also the author of the Phases of the Fixed Stars , a work on astrological weather prediction. Vettius Valens 2nd Century C. Evidently a younger contemporary of Ptolemy's, he compiled the Anthology , a long writing in nine books dealing with most facets of Hellenistic astrology. More than any other astrologer, Valens may represent the mainstream of the Hellenistic tradition; he quotes or cites a large number of astrologers who would be otherwise unknown. Clearly a practicing astrologer, he exercises his critical intelligence on the tradition and the various competing contemporary astrological schools.
According to his own account, he travelled widely throughout the Middle East in search of astrological wisdom. There is a distinct and highly religious personality evident in his work. The Anthology also contains a huge collection of actual horoscopes and their delineations, worked out as examples of his various techniques. The Anthology as we have it may have been substantially edited in the 5th Century. Although some of Valens was known to the Medieval Arabian astrologers through Persian translation, there seems to be no trace in the later tradition of many of the techniques he discusses, such as the numerous time-lord systems treated of in Book IV.
Now, the writings of Dorotheus, Ptolemy, and Valens become the canonical texts for several generations of commentators and compilers, although these later authors also had access to some of the original Hermetic source material and the writings of the first expositors. Principal among these compilers were Paulus Alexandrinus 4th century , Hephaistio of Thebes 5th century , and Rhetorius 6th century. Firmicus Maternus 4th century is in something of a special category, since he states that his compilation derives directly from the Hermetic material and seems to be uninfluenced by Dorotheus, Ptolemy, or Valens.
Very little original astrological thinking was done by these later Hellenistic astrologers. They confined their efforts to the exposition and systematization of the earlier authors, through which much earlier material was preserved. However, we see that in many cases the writings of Dorotheus, Ptolemy, and Valens were just as obscure and ambiguous to them as the writings of the Hermetic tradition were to these three authors themselves. A work by him on planetary configurations, planets in the domiciles and bounds of other planets, and planets on angles, seems to be derived from the second book of Dorotheus.
It may originally have been in verse, but what we now have is a prose summary. Hephaistio quotes some verses from him dealing with rectification.